28403  Epidemiology and biostatistics
Compulsory
5.2. Learning tasks
The program that offers itself the student to help him to achieve the due results comprises the following activities (the topics of both matters will be alternated to favor the knowledge integration).
THEORETICAL TOPICS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Topic Epi1: Types of variables and scales of measurement
Descriptors:
Numerical and qualitative variables. Discreet and Continuous. Suitable measurements.
Competences:
To be able to recognize the basic types of variables in a set of experimental information, as well as its possible measurement scales.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi2: Introduction to the Epidemiology
Descriptors:
Historical precedents of the Epidemiology. Definition of Epidemiology. Uses of the Epidemiology. Differences between clinical medicine and epidemiology. Types of epidemiology. Examples of illnesses.
Competences:
To place to the Epidemiology in the frame of its historical evolution. To understand the Epidemiology concept. To know the targets of the Epidemiology. To be able to apply the epidemiologic method. To differ between Clinical medicine and Epidemiology.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 1,5 h
Topic Epi3: Evaluation of diagnostic tests
Descriptors:
Evaluation of diagnostic tests: sensibility, especificidad and values predictivos. Criteria of selection of diagnostic tests. Combination of diagnostic tests. Optimization of a diagnostic test. Congruity of two diagnostic tests (kappa).
Competences:
To be capable of evaluating the quality of a diagnostic test. To have objective criteria to select the diagnosis most adapted to every situation. To be capable of modifying the quality of a diagnostic test. To be capable of comparing two diagnostic tests.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 3 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 4,5 h
Topic Epi4: Sampling
Descriptors:
Basic sampling concepts. Typical of the sample. Factors to be considered: method of sampling and size of sample. Types of errors (systematical and random). Mechanisms of production of slants and errors. Sampling methods: probabilísticos and not probabilísticos. Factors that influence the sample size. Adjustments of the size of the sample. Calculation of size of sample (to detect illness, to estimate average, to estimate percentage and differences between percentages).
Competences:
To know the theoretical essentials of the sampling. To be capable of selecting the most suitable sampling method. To be capable of applying the formulae of calculation of size of sample.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 3 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 4,5 h
Topic Epi5: Elements of Qualitative Epidemiology
Descriptors:
Temporary evolution of the illness in an individual (period of latency, period of prepatencia and incubation period). Evolution of the illness in a population (epidemic curves, Kendal's strip of wood, Law of CharlesNicole, presentation space  storm of the illness and Epidemic Index). Determinants of illness (agent, host and ambience). Transmission of the illness (infection sources, transmission mechanisms, transmission routes and strategies of maintenance of the infection).
Competences:
To distinguish between the different forms of temporary evolution of the illness. To be capable of integrating all the illness determinants in the context of an epidemiologic triad. To know how it is transmitted and maintains an illness in a population.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi6: Causality
Descriptors:
Introduction: Snieszko scheme. Causal reasoning. Causality criteria: (Cánones of Mill, Postulated of HenleKoch, Postulated of Hill …). Causal models (unicausal determinist, simple multicasual determinist, advanced multicasual determinist and probabilístico).
Competences:
To understand the evolution of the concept of causality. To be capable of realizing a causal reasoning. To understand the HenleKoch postulates and to justify its limitations. To understand the postulates of Evans and other causality criteria. To differ between the different causal models.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 1,5 h
Topic Epi7: Epidemiologic surveys
Descriptors:
Definition of epidemiologic survey. Forms design (questions, answers, order, format…). Databases creation. Cumplimentación of surveys (method of collection of information, optimization of the valuation of answer, achievement of pilot survey, configuration of the team of work and crosscheck and treatment of the information). Ethical considerations.
Competences:
To be capable of selecting the necessary information in an epidemiologic study. To be capable of discriminating between types of variables. To be capable of designing actively a questionnaire. To be able to gather information adapted for an epidemiologic investigation by means of surveys.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi8: Design of epidemiologic studies
Descriptors:
Criteria of classification of the epidemiologic studies. Experimental studies (groups control, classification and masking): advantages and disadvantages. Studies observacionales (cross street, case  control and cohorts): scheme, advantages and disadvantages. Ecological studies. Sifted population.
Competences:
To differ between studies as the criteria of classification. To raise the different types of studies as the looked targets.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi9: Studies observacionales transverse
Descriptors:
Basic concepts. Reasons (index, proportion and valuation). Definition of case and population in risk. Transverse measurements: morbidity or predominance, mortality and letality. Factors that influence the calculation: diagnostic reliability and size of sample. Raw values Specific vs: Valuations standardization
Competences:
To differ between valuation and proportion. To measure the illness in a moment of certain time. To minimize the influence of variables of confusion on having measured the illness
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi10: Studies observacionales longitudinal
Descriptors:
Longitudinal measurement of the illness: Predominance (Punctual Predominance and Period of Predominance) and Incidences (Piled up Incidence and Valuation of Incidence). Relations between appreciative.
Competences:
To quantify the illness and its evolution throughout a period of time.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi11: Estimation of the risk
Descriptors:
Calculation and selection of appreciative of risk (Reason of Predominance, Odds Ratio and Relative Risk). Calculation of intervals of confidence. Interpretation of the risk. Appreciative others of effect (Attributable Risk, Fraction etiológica, Attributable Risk of the Population and Fraction etiológica of the Population).
Competences:
To select the appreciative one of risk most adapted to every type of study. To calculate the most suitable risk appreciative ones and to interpret the risk according to the type of study, appreciative selected and its confidence interval. To know appreciative others of interest related to the risk.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
Topic Epi12: Decision theory
Descriptors:
Decision under certainty (Mathematical Programming). Decision under risk: With experimentation (statistical inference) and without experimentation (probability bayesiana): Awaited utility. Causes of illogical decisions. Necessary number to Harm. Decision under suspense (Theory of Games)
Competences:
To understand the different possible situations on having taken a decision. To apply the rules of decision bayesiana using epidemiologic results
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 3 h
THEORETICAL TOPICS OF BIOSTATISTICS
Topic BS1: Probability distributions
Descriptors:
Probability. Random variable: types and classification. Distribution of probability of a random variable. Discrete and continuous probability distributions in veterinary sciences. Other fundamental distributions in statistical inference.
Competences:
To be able to recognize the more used in veterinary sciences random variables and its probability distributions.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and and problem solving, 3 h
Topic BS2: Conditional probability
Descriptors:
Conditional probability. Concept of independence of random variables. Bayes Theorem. Application to the interpretation of a diagnosis.
Competences:
To understand and to apply the concept of conditional probability. To recognize the independence between variables. To apply the Bayes theorem to the solving of real problems.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 1,5 h
Topic BS3: Frequencies
Descriptors:
Frequency. Frequency Tables. Frequency tables for grouped and ungrouped data. Graphical Representation of Frequency Distribution.
Competences:
To be able, from a set of information, to obtain the frequency tables that describes the statistical distribution of the data base.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 1,5 h
Topic BS4: Descriptive statistics
Descriptors:
Descriptive statistics. Descriptive measures for a sample data. Moments measures (central tendency, variability and shape), and position measures (percentiles).
Competences:
To be able to obtain and to interpret with the suitable computer free software the descriptive measurements of a set of sample data.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 1,5 h
Topic BS5: Statistical inference I: confidence intervals
Descriptors:
Definition of statistical inference. Sampling distribution of a given statistic based on a random sample. Obtaining a probability interval from the sampling distribution. Confidence intervals. Calculation of the confidence intervals most representative or used in the veterinary sciences.
Competences:
To be able to obtain and to interpret with the suitable computer free software the confidence intervals to do inferences on the population parameters.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 1,5 h
Topic BS6: Statistical inference II: hypothesis contrast
Descriptors:
Statistical hypothesis test. Definition of hypothesis test. Basic elements in a Test. Types of errors. The significance level. Pvalue concept.
Competences:
To understand the concept of statistical hypothesis test as another application of the statistical inference different from the estimation for confidence intervals. To be able of defining the basic hypothesis in the test. To be able to obtain and to explain the conclusion in a hypothesis test.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 2 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 3 h
Topic BS7: Statistical inference III: selection of tests of statistical contrast
Descriptors:
Selection of the statistical test. Types of hypothesis testing. Parametric and nonparametric tests. The most commonly hypothesis tests used in statistical inference with application to the veterinary sciences.
Competences:
To be able to apply the adecuate hypothesis test depending on the null hypothesis.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 1,5 h
Topic BS8: Correlation models and linear regression
Descriptors:
Twodimensional quantitative variables. Concept of linear correlation coefficient. Linear regression model. Linear correlation model. Obtaining the best fit or regression lines. Residual analysis in regression.
Competences:
To understand the concept of linear relation between two quantitative random variables. To distinguish between the correlation and the regression. To be able to calculate the correlation coefficient and the regression lines. To understand the analysis of the residuals.
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 1 h
– Student work: reading and comprehension of the theory, and problem solving, 1,5 h
Seminar BS_prob: Problems of probability
Descriptors:
To solve problems related with topics BS1, BS2, BS3 y BS4.
Competences:
To apply concepts included in topics BS1, BS2, BS3 y BS4.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical seminar: 1 h
– Student work: to solve problems in classroom, 1,5 h
Seminar BS_inf: Problems of statistical inference
Descriptors:
To solve problems related with topics BS5, BS6 y BS7.
Competences:
To apply concepts included in topics BS5, BS6 y BS7.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical seminar: 1 h
– Student work: to solve problems in classroom, 1,5 h
PRACTICES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Practice Epi1: Diagnostic tests
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to the topic Epi3.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
Practice Epi2: Calculation of the size of sample
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to the topic Epi4.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 1,5 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
Practice Epi3: Stratified results. Average values and differences between proportions
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to the topics Epi4, Epi9 and BS7.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 1,5 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
Practice Epi4: Transverse illness measurements
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to the topics Epi4 and Epi9.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
Practice Epi5: Longitudinal illness measurements
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to the topics Epi4 and Epi10.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 1,5 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
Practice Epi6: Estimation of the risk
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to the topics Epi4 and Epi11.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
Epidemiologic study
Descriptors and competences:
The correspondents to all the realized topics of the subject of form integrated across the resolution of an epidemiologic and statistical study of an animal population
Activities education  learning:
– Lectures (teaching method): 5,5 h (the first meeting of 2,5 h and the second meeting of 3 h)
– I work on the part of the student: reading and comprehension of the theory, and achievement of the exercises, 2 h
PRACTICES OF BIOSTATISTICS
Practice BS1: Probability distributions
Descriptors and competences:
The corresponding to the topics BS1, BS2 and BS3.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– I work on the part of the student: revision of theoretical concepts and review of the exercises 1 h
– Student work: reviewing of the theorical concepts associated to the topics, 1h.
Practice BS2: Descriptive statistics
Descriptors and competences:
The corresponding to the topics BS4 and BS5.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– Student work: reviewing of the theorical concepts associated to the topics, 1h.
Practice BS3: Introduction to the Statistical inference
Descriptors and competences:
The corresponding to the topics BS6 and BS7.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– Student work: reviewing of the theorical concepts associated to the topics, 1h.
Practice BS4: Correlation analysis. Simple Linear Regression
Descriptors and competences:
The corresponding to the topic BS8.
Activities education  learning:
– Practical classes: 2 h
– Student work: reviewing of the theorical concepts associated to the topics, 1h.
Summary of the activities of education – learning
Activity

Hours Presenciales

Factor

Autonomous work
/No Attend

Total

Classes of theory

34

1,5

51

84

Seminars and problems

2

1,5

4

6

Practices

24

0,5

12

36

Practical work



15

15

Tutorships



5

5

Examinations



4

4

Total

60


90

150
