26411 - Mineralogy
1. Mineralogy: definition and relationships with other sciences. Importance among the Geologic Sciences. Concept of mineral. Industrial mineral, ore, gangue and gem.
I) MINERAL GENESIS ENVIRONMENTS
2. Structure and chemical composition of the Earth. Distinctive features of the Crust, the Mantle and the Core. The Earth Crust, the Lithosphere and the Asthenosphere. Chemical composition of the Earth Crust. Geochemical classification of the elements.
3. Mineral genesis and geologic processes. Mineral formation and the phases rule: statement and terms explanation. Phase equilibrium diagrams. One-, two- and three-phases systems.
4. Magmatic environment. Equilibrium and fractionated crystallization. The Bowen Series. Mineralogy of the igneous rocks. The pegmatitic and pneumatolitic stages. The hydrothermal satage. Metasomatic processes.
5. Sedimentary environment. Weathering and types. Edafic profiles and types. Physic-chemical factors controlling the sedimentary processes. Mineralogy of the sedimentary rocks.
6. Metamorphic environment. Physic-chemical factors controlling the metamorphic processes. Types of metamorphism and features. Metamorphic facies. Mineralogy of the metamorphic rocks.
II) SYSTEMATICS OF SILICATE MINERALS
7. Mineral classification: used criteria. Strunz classification. Silicates: generalities, crystal chemistry, classification, physical properties and types of rocks where they are present.
8. Nesosilicates. Main features. Olivine group. Aluminum silicates group. Garnet group.
9. Sorosilicates. Main features. Epidote group.
10. Ciclosilicates. Main features. Tourmaline group. Cordierite.
11. Inosilicates. Main features. Classification: pyroxenes, pyroxenoids y amphiboles.
12. Pyroxenes. Chemical composition and classification. Physical properties. Types of rocks where they are present.
13. Pyroxenoids. Main features. Wollastonite.
14. Amphiboles. Chemical composition and classification. Physical properties. Types of rocks where they are present.
15. Phyllosilicates. Main features crystal chemistry and classification. 1:1 phyllosilicates. 2:1 phyllosilicates.
16. Clay phyllosilicates. Chlorite group. Fibrous clay minerals.
17. Tectosilicates. Main features. SiO2 group. Alkali feldspar group. Physical properties. Types of rocks where they are present.
18. Plagioclases. Chemical composition and structure. Physical properties. Types of rocks where they are present.
19. Feldspathoids. Scapolite group. Zeolite group.
III) SYSTEMATICS OF NON-SILICATE MINERALS
20. Introduction to non-silicate minerals: scientific, technical and economic interest of non-silicate minerals, main applications, exploration and exploitation of mineral deposits, mineral and energy resources, Plate tectonics and metallogeny.
21. Native elements. General characteristics. Crystal chemistry and physical properties. Classification. Description of the main groups: metals, semimetals and nonmetals.
22. Halides. Introduction. General characteristics. Classification. Description of the main groups. Types of rocks where they are found.
23. Sulfides, related minerals and sulfosalts. Introduction. Crystal chemistry and physical properties. Classifications, structures and characteristics of the main groups and associations.
24. Oxides and hydroxides. Introduction. Crystal chemistry and physical properties. Classification. Origin and types of deposits.
25. Carbonates, nitrates and borates. Introduction. Crystal chemistry and physical properties of carbonate minerals. Carbonates classification. Calcite, dolomite and aragonite series. Properties and forming environments.
26. Sulfates, chromates, molybdates and wolframates. Introduction. Gypsum and anhydrite. Types of rocks where they are found.
27. Phosphates, arsenates and vanadates. Introduction. General characteristics.
PRACTICAL SESSIONS (laboratory sessions)
Contents are divided in two hour sessions scheduled as follows:
- Session 1. Macroscopic observation and identification of silicate minerals
- Session 2. Optical microscopy: tectosilicates
- Session 3. Optical microscopy: phyllosilicates
- Session 4. Optical microscopy: inosilicates
- Session 5. Optical microscopy: nesosilicates
- Session 6. Optical microscopy: soro and ciclosilicates
- Session 7. Silicates review
- Session 8. Macroscopic observation and identifiaction of non-silicate minerals: non-metallic minerals
- Session 9. Macroscopic observation and identification of non-silicate minerals: metallic minerals
- Session 10. Optical microscopy: carbonates, sulphates and halides
- Session 11. Optical microscopy: reference ore minerals (I)
- Session 12. Optical microscopy: reference ore minerals (II)
- Session 13. Optical microscopy: sulphides and related minerals
- Session 14. Optical microscopy: oxides
- Session 15. Optical microscopy: copper minerals
- Session 16. Non-silicates minerals review
Development of a bibliographic work (5 hours)
Students can choose a subject related to the course contents for the development and exposition of the work, following the indications of the teaching staff.
Field trips (8 hours)
Two field trips are scheduled. The first term field trip is related to genesis environments of silicate minerals and the second term field trip to non-silicate minerals.