25201 - Biology
15 sessions (30 hours of class) in which the following subjects will be studied:
A) Molecular Genetics
1. The genome. Levels of organization. The prokaryotes genome and organulars genomes (mitochondial and cloroplasts). Eukaryote nuclear genome: sizes, structure, evolution. Repetitive DNAs and simple or low copy DNA. Genes and family genetics.
2. DNA replication. Fundamentals and mechanisms of the replication. Replisome. DNA repair and mutations due to substitution. Mutagenetic agentes.
3. Transcription of DNA to RNA. Transcription mechanisms. Maturing process of ANN eukaryotes. Posttranscriptional alterations. Packing of ribosomal subunits.
4. Translation. Characteristics of the genetic code. Variations the code. Protein synthesis in prokaryote and in eukaryotes. Mechanisms and cellular localization.
5. Regulation mechanisms of genetic expression. Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes: the cascade of Sigma factors, operon. Regulation of transcription in eukaryotes: heterochromatinization of DNA. Editing function of ANN messenger.
B). Reproduction and development
6. The eukaryote cell cycle. Phases of cell division and interfase. Mitotic cell division. Cell division in animals and vegetables. Mitotic mutagen. Mitoic cell division. Mitoic divisions I and II (meiosis I and II): phases and mechanisms. Genetic significance of meiosis: recombination and chromosome reduction in gametogenesis.
7. Sexual reproduction in animals. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Hormonal control of gametogenesis. Fertilization.
8. Sexual reproduction in plants. The flower. Formation of masculine and feminine gametophyte and gametes. Pollination.
9. Self-incompatibility. Seed development. Dormancy and germination. Asexual reproduction: vegetative reproduction and apomixis. Agamic complexes.
10. Animal development. Embryogenesis (blastulation, gastrulation, neurulation). Determining and differentiating embryonic cells. Genetic and hormonal control of animal development.
11. Plant development. Regulating hormones: Auxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellin, Abscisic acid and Ethylene. Photoreceptors: Phytochrome.
12. Laws of inheritence. Phenotype y genotype. Mendelism. Principle of Uniformity of F1, Principal of Segregation), Principle of Independent Assortment. Genetic bases of the laws of Mendelism). Test Cross. Mendelian tests with multiple genes.
13.Non-Mendelian heredity. Variations of dominance (codominance) Pluri-allelism. Genetic interaction: Epistasias. Genetic linkage. Sex linkage. Pleiotropy. citoplasmatic inheritance.
14. Hereditary Variation: chromosomal alterations and ploidy levels. Chromosomal deletion, inversions y translocation. Diplodia, aneuploidy, and polyploidy. Homoploid hybrids. Non-hybrid polyploidy (Autopoliploidy). Hybrid polyploids (Allopolyploidy). Inheritance in polyploidys. Evolutionary, ecological and economic importance of polyploid plants.
15. Evolution. Darwin´s Theory of Evolution. Speciation. Biological species. Anagenesis and cladogenesis. Allopatric and sympatric speciation. Speciation by hybridization. Microevolution and macroevolution population. Phylogenetic reconstructions. Natural phenomena such as continental drift, extinction and adaptive radiation.
5 sessions (30 hours of class) in which the following subjects will be studied:
1- Concepts of microscopy: Optical and electronic microscopy.
2- Electronic microscopy: Interpretations of electronographies of animal and vegetable tissue.
3- Observing eukaryotic cells: animal cells and plant cells.
4- Observing and identifying plastids.
5- Cultivation and identification of bacteria. Gram´s method. Sporulating bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
6-Observing fungal structures. Identifying fungi.
7- DNA isolation.
8- The genetic code.
9- Mitosis. Observing the phases of mitosis.
10- Producing karyotypes.
11-.Meiosis. Observing the phases of meiosis.
12- Sexual reproduction and embryonic development in animals and higher plants. Observing gamete cells of animals and plants gametophytes. Observing the embryonic development in plants and animals.
13- Mendelian Genetic Problems
14- Non Mendelian Genetic Problems I
15- Non Mendelian Genetic Problems II