25200 - Chemical foundations of the environment
5.1. Methodological overview
All the proposed activities in this subject are centred in the understanding and assimilation of the chemistry principles to understand the different chemical processes that occur in the environment.
All the contents explained in the theory classroom will be complemented by the laboratory sessions.
A group work will be proposed at the beginning of the course, which will involve the discussion of a proposed topic in collaboration with Fundaments of Geology. Such topic will be closely related to contents included in both subjects: Chemistry and Geology.
Individualized tutoring will monitor the learning process development.
5.2. Learning tasks
These are the required activities to achieve the expected results:
- Theory and seminar classroom
Students will have the content of each lecture as well as the collection of numerical exercises at the beginning of each session.
- Laboratory sessions
These laboratory sessions will take 2 hours, approximately every 15 days. Students will have the content before the session, which includes the practical procedure and the theoretical contents.
- 3. Group work
During the course time the students will be divided in groups of 4-5 members in order to develop a particular topic in collaboration with Fundamentals of Geology for the study of the environment. The proposed topic will be closely related to contents included in both subjects: Chemistry and Geology. All the students are encouraged to submit an individual report previous to the final group presentation, which will include a summary with the different sections of the topic in addition to the corresponding bibliography.
The topics to be developed in the theory classes are divided into four sections:
Section 1: Atomic Structure
Atoms and atomic theory. The components of the atom. Introduction to the Periodic Table of Elements. Relationships of mass in chemistry: atomic mass, mole, empirical formula. Stoichiometry.
Section 2: State of Matter and Solutions
-Gaseous State: Gas Properties. Laws of gases, ideal gas equations. Kinetic-molecular theory. Equation of real gases. (Unit 2)
-Solid State: Types of solids. Van der Waals forces. Crystal structures. (Unit 3)
-Liquid State: Liquids Properties. Liquid-vapour balance. Changes of state. Phase diagrams. (Unit 4)
-Solutions: Units of Concentration. The basic fundamentals of solubility. Colligative properties. (Unit 5)
Section 3: Thermodynamic Chemistry
Principles of heat transfer. The First Principal of Thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Thermodynamic equations. Enthalpy of formation, Bond Energy. (Unit 6)
Section 4: Chemical Equilibrium
-Equilibrium. Basic concepts of equilibrium. Constant of Equilibrium. Changes in the conditions of equilibrium. (Unit 7)
-Acid-Base equilibrium: Definition of acid and base. Ionic product of water. pH and pOH. Strength of acids and bases. Buffer solution. pH indicators. Acid-base titration (Unit 8)
- Redox equilibrium: voltaic cells. Standard Potential. Relation between Eº, K y DGº. Electrolytic and commercial cells. (Unit 9)
- Precipitation equilibrium: constant of the product of solubility. Dissolving precipitates. Equilibrium of complex ions. (Unit 10)
Section 5: Carbon Compound. (Unit 11)
-Introduction to hydrocarbons: Alcanes, alkenes, alkynes
-Functional organic groups
SESSION 1. Production and behaviour of gases. Production of hydrogen. Determination of atomic weight of a metal.
SESSION 2. Liquids and solutions. Concentration of solutions. Strong and weak electrolytes. Preparation of different solutions (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, ammonium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide) to distinguish the behaviour of strong and weak electrolytes by measuring the pH.
SESSION 3. Liquid solutions. Separation by destilation. Destilation of a commercial wine. Determination of alcoholic grade
SESSION 4. Acids and Bases. Proton transfer reactions. Balances in solutions. Indicators. Recognize the behaviour of various indicators in different aqueous media: acid, basic and neutral. Study the acid-base behaviour of different salts depending on the colour they take on in the presence of an indicator. The study of different chemical equilibria.
SESSION 5. Acid bases reactions. Neutralization. The study of a neutralization process by stage. Acid-base titration.
SESSION 6. Oxidazing and reducing agents. Electron transfer reactions. Reaction of metals with the H+ ion (non oxidant acids) and with oxidant acids. Displacement reactions.
SESSION 7. Chemical behaviour of alkaline earth metals and chemical behaviour of anions. Precipitation. Determination of an unknown salt